In 2013, with the initiate funding support of the Stanford-Shenson Award for Music in Medicine, J. Cecilia Wu (Ph.D. researcher at UCSB, composer/vocalist) , Lee Heuermann (composer/vocalist/researcher, Berkeley, CA) , and Chris Chafe (Director of the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), at Stanford University, composer/researcher/celletist-electric cello)  began working together on the project, “Being Peace and the Power of the Voice.” This project traces and explores women’s use of their voice to effect non-violent change in the world. It grew out of our mutual interest in music as a healing art form, which developed from our own contemplative meditation practices and experiencing first-hand the impact of both silence and sound on our bodies and psyches. The positive impact of sound and music, frequently recognized, is their capacity to sooth and relieve the stresses of daily life and to transport us to deeper states of consciousness.
One of the reasons our project feels compelling is that it is holistic in nature. It combines research, artistic creation and performance in connection with social justice issues, the integration of cutting edge technology, building cross-cultural relationships through the lens of spiritual practice, and interdisciplinary collaboration. The research component of “Being Peace and the Power of the Voice” began with exploring the possibilities of sound as a healing force in the world. We decided to focus on women who have used their voice to spread peace and spiritual teachings and to facilitate social change during their lifetimes.
We wanted to look at both Eastern and Western spiritual traditions in historical and contemporary times, drawing from the countries of Tibet, India, Nepal, China and the United States. We included Hildegard of Bingen (a 12th Century German Christian nun and composer, mystic, botanist and healer) and Yeshe Tsogyal (an 8th Century Tibetan and first female “monk” who, according to legend, would sing her teachings). The Buddhist monk, Padmasambava, recognized Tsogyal’s brilliance and chose to educate instead of marry her. After his death, she became the primary transmitter of Buddhism in Tibet. In more contemporary times, we looked at ways the voice was used during the Civil Rights Movement, focusing on Bernice Johnson Reagon (founder and director of the a capella group Sweet Honey in the Rock), and Ani Choying Drolma (a Nepalese Buddhist nun and singer).
The technology component of our project explores ways of connecting cultures and collaborative artistic partners over long distances, through the use of the Jacktrip  application for online jamming and concert technology. Jacktrip was first developed in the early 2000s. It is an open source, Linux and Mac OSX-based system, used for multi-machine network performance over an Internet connection. Jacktrip supports any number of channels of bidirectional, high quality, low- latency, and uncompressed audio-signal streaming. More and more musicians have started using this emerging technology to play tightly synchronized music with other musicians who are located in different cities or countries. Without paying significant transportation costs, we exchanged musical ideas, rehearsed, recorded, and improvised together in different geological locations.
Our project uses musical performance to relate to an audience on both a personal and emotional level and to demonstrate the powerful nature of sound to affect spiritual transformation and healing. Heuermann has composed two pieces so far, and is working on a third. The first is Being Peace , for two voices, celleto (electric cello) and piano. Heuermann wrote the text during a silent meditation retreat. It is based on Thich Nhat Hanh’s idea of living and breathing peace in everyday life. The second piece is entitled Fire of Spirit, and it is for the same instrumentation but has both spoken and sung voice, and is based on a chant by Hildegard von Bingen, reimagined or “recomposed” in a contemporary context. It alternates between improvisation and composition. The third piece is Om Kaleidoscope (based on the Om Mani Padme Hum chant) for the same instruments plus chorus. The work is interdisciplinary in nature, ranging from medicine, science and the humanities to the arts.
Here we explore how each of our individual spiritual paths have affected the collaborative project together, particularly how what we’ve learned from meditation has carried over into our creative process together. Heuermann had originally met Chafe when she was a Visiting Scholar at CCRMA at Stanford in 2001, researching the nature of vocal timbre across cultures. Over the following years, they had a number of opportunities to improvise and perform together on celleto and voice. They were very aware of the meditative state that was reached during improvisation in that it called for a certain focus and relaxed awareness, sensitivity, and a willingness to pay attention. Another way to describe it would be that one must be open and receptive in order to tune in to the other person. In 2009, they performed together at the Banff Center for the Arts in Resonations, a telematic international concert for peace sponsored by the United Nations. Musicians from NYC at the UN, California, Canada, Italy, Sweden and Korea came together to perform. A telematic concert is where musicians can perform together across great distances with the use of current technology, such as Jack- trip, which enabled them to see and hear each other in close to real time.
In 2013, Chafe and Heuermann decided to work together on a project involving the healing capacity of sound. Chafe knew that J. Cecilia Wu, his graduate student at Stanford, also a composer and vocalist involved in Buddhist meditation, would be the perfect addition as a collaborator. Wu became a Zen practitioner in 2001, and four years later visited Tibet, where she participated in a grand and inspirational ceremony of empowerment led by a Living Buddha. The ceremony was held at the oldest sacred Buddhist temple of the Jornang branch in Golok. Prior to this trip, her creative works consisted primarily of commercial music. From 2005 to 2010, following the steps of Shakyamuni’s Nirvana, Wu traveled to many sacred Buddhist places in Tibet, Nepal and India. These spiritual journeys gave her a new outlook on her life and music. Through the inspiration of Tibetan Buddhism, Wu wants to impact the younger generation through music in a contemplative way that imparts Buddhist philosophy.
Chris Chafe, in his role as director of CCRMA (Stanford) is at the forefront of new developments in experiments relating to sound and technology and the intersection between music and science. Chafe is currently working with a Stanford neurologist on developing a stethoscope that measures brainwaves during seizures. Through listening to the brain’s sound waves, they believe they will be able to predict seizures before they happen. Additionally, he is taking the brainwave measurements and, through algorithms, is mapping them onto the synthesis of the human voice. He is then able to make musical landscapes out of them. Another work of Chris’, called Tomato Music, takes five vats of tomatoes and ripens them for 10 days, mapping sound from this process. Chris is also at the forefront of developing and improving technology such as Jacktrip.
Heuermann has been particularly drawn to both yoga and to the meditation practice of Engaged Buddhism embodied in the teachings of Thich Nhat Hanh, which combine the meditative and physical with one’s breath. Thich Nhat Hanh’s teachings integrate peace and justice activism through connecting to all - humans, animals, and the natural environment, with every breath one takes. As a vocalist, Heuermann experiences her art form as centering on the breath. Heuermann sees the strands in her life as being her involvement in peace and justice work through civil rights and feminism and how that’s lived/practiced in community and in relationships, and her connection to the natural environment and a commitment to preserving it. All of these aspects of her life come together through the lens of her spiritual practice of Buddhist meditation/mindfulness and through her artistic work as a composer and performer with the intention of experiencing and communicating sound/music as a healing force in the world.
How has our contemplative practice informed and inspired our work together, both in terms of the artistic process and its outcomes? As people involved in higher music education, we look at the qualities developed and nurtured in our meditation practice and how that has affected not only our student/faculty collaboration, but also, in a conference or performance situation, how it affects participants and audience members. We introduce different phases of our project and demonstrate how these specific qualities that are cultivated through meditation, such as flexibility, receptivity, compassion, seeing things as they are, and trusting one's intuition, have affected our interaction during the artistic process. Essentially, we reflect on the nuts and bolts of collaborating and how meditation has helped us to work well together.
3.1 Being in tune with yourself
In the initial stages of an artistic or research project, the practice of meditation and stilling the mind teaches one to listen to and become in tune with oneself. The more in tune with ourselves we are, the more we can trust and follow our intuition. In A Still Forest Pool - The Insight Meditation of Achaan Chah, compiled and edited by Jack Kornfield and Paul Breiter, “mindfulness” is defined as, “That quality of mind which notices what is happening in the present moment with no clinging, aversion, or delusion.” (Kornfield et al, 1985) (p. 191) Joseph Goldstein, American Buddhist and founding member of the Insight Meditation Society, in his book One Dharma - The Emerging Western Buddhism, defines mindfulness like this:
By mindfulness, I mean the quality of paying full attention to the moment, opening to the truth of change. So it is not a question of closing our senses and withdrawing from the world, but of opening our eye of wisdom and being free in the world. (Goldstein, 2002) (p. 32)
He describes meditation as “the development of tranquility and insight. It begins with calming the mind and collecting the attention.” (Ibid.) (p. 83) Goldstein talks about the walk on the path of awareness as follows:
We experience the growing possibilities of awakening. We actually are awake more of the time, and this gives us a strong sense of path, the experience of meaningful direction. The powerful combination of presence and path, of being grounded in the present moment’s experience even as we navigate toward a more complete freedom, provides a significant context for understanding our own lives. (Ibid.) (p. 46)
We artists are fortunate in that we are trained early on to pay attention to both our inner and outer landscapes. Meditation can teach non-artists to tune in, and this could naturally encourage creativity in them. Goldstein quotes Proust as saying that “The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeing new landscapes but in having new eyes.” (Ibid.) (p. 83)
Additionally, by knowing ourselves and our inclinations, we are more likely to choose collaborative partners with mutual or complementary interests. Meditation nurtures a sense of focus and clarity that helps one to zero in on the subject matter of maximum relevance. Our backgrounds and our contemplative practice brought us together to pursue our mutual interests in music and meditation.
3.2 Taking time for yourself
During Phase One of our project, Heuermann composed Being Peace, for two voices, celleto (electric cello), and piano (inspired by the work of Thich Nhat Hanh). As mentioned earlier, Lee wrote the text while on a silent retreat at the Wildrose Farm in upstate Washington, led by her teacher Eileen Kiera. In any profession, but especially in the fields of education and health, one is “other” focused, and predominantly giving outward, so it is necessary to take time for oneself in order to recharge.
In her book No Time To Lose: A Timely Guide to the Way of the Bodhisattva, Buddhist nun Pema Chodron, interprets the eighth century teachings of the sage, Shantideva:
If impaired by weakness or fatigue, I’ll lay the work aside, the better to resume. And I will leave tasks uncompleted, Anticipating thus the work to come. (Chodron, 2005) (p. 260)
Chodron elaborates by saying,
The subject here is the importance of moderation and rest. Before making any commitments, we can consider our capabilities and learn to pace ourselves. We sentient beings habitually drive ourselves or flop, both of which lead to burnout. The key to remaining eager and inspired on the bodhisattva path is knowing when to take a break. On this wise and compassionate note, Shantideva ends his presentation of the four powers: aspiration, firmness, joy and moderation. (Ibid.) (p. 260)
Chodron confides by saying that “The older I get, the more drawn I am to longer periods of retreats, yet I know that spending months in solitude isn’t realistic for many people. You could, however, meditate each day and do day-long or weekend retreats whenever possible. If you can take more time, I certainly encourage you to do this. The main point is to make solitude a part of your life.” (Ibid.) (p. 277) Making the time to attend a retreat, belong to a meditation sangha or take a yoga class was essential to Heuermann’s process.
3.3 Cultivating Flexibility/adaptability
For Phase Two of the project, both Wu and Chafe were working at Stanford. Heuermann was teaching at the University of Montana in Missoula. They were rehearsing Being Peace long-distance with the use of Jacktrip and discussing the project via Skype. Through meditation, one develops the flexibility and adaptability one needs to work with the frustration that inevitably occurs when technical problems arise. Additionally, scheduling meeting and rehearsal times can be an issue in one’s own timezone, and even more of a challenge long-distance.
The quality of being flexible and the willingness to compromise, sometimes working at less optimal times of day, can be necessary.
The venerable Thai Zen master Achaan Chah, defines emptiness as “Emptiness of self or soul; refers to the basic understanding that there is no one, no self to whom all experience is happening, and that what we are is simply a changing process.” (Kornfield et al, 1985) (p. 190)
Joseph Goldstein describes the process of change and adaptability through the following story:
Waking up need not be a somber affair when we bring the delight of investigation to what we’re doing. We can fashion our lives the way an artist creates a great work of art. Our lives are the medium through which to express our creative wisdom. The poet monk Ryokan is a great example of someone who has found the joy of contentment. He lived from 1758-1831, spending much of his adult life in the high mountains of Japan, meditating in solitude, playing with the village children, as he went begging for food, and leaving a legacy of wonderful poetry that illuminated his day-to-day understanding. At one point when he had been living in just a small hut with just a few essential possessions, he returned one day to find that even his few cooking utensils had been stolen. He looked about his empty room and then wrote this haiku poem:
The thief it left behind -
At the window. (Goldstein, 2002) (p. 61)
Goldstein goes on to say, “Ryokan’s life points to a deeper meaning of not stealing: the happiness of being easily satisfied with the changing conditions of one’s life.” (Ibid.) (p. 61)
3.4 Cultivating the willingness to be open-minded (not attached to ideas)
Cecilia and Lee traveled to Hong Kong during Phase Three of their project, where Lee was a guest speaker at the Third World Youth Buddhism Symposium at the Hong Kong Institute of Education (Tai Po, Hong Kong) and they performed Being Peace. Here they met the venerable Khenpo Sodargye Rinpoche, a Tibetan Buddhist scholar and Director of the Larung Gar Five Sciences Buddhist Academy (Sichuan Province, China). Lee had written several drafts of the paper to be given, “Being Peace and the Power of the Voice.” Cecilia translated it into Mandarin and acted as Lee’s translator during the talk. In Hong Kong, Cecilia and Lee roomed together but traveled separately, and were meeting in person for the first time. When they had both arrived and were settled in their room, Lee shared drafts of the paper with Cecilia, while Cecilia gave feedback, which Lee incorporated into the paper. The process of translating the paper into Mandarin was fascinating to them both, seeing the ways that different languages can cause one to experience concepts from different perspectives. This takes a willingness to be open-minded and not too attached to ideas - possibly needing to alter an idea or way of thinking to make sure it’s communicated effectively and correctly - while maintaining the essence of the idea.
Pema Chodron explains the concept of “shenpa” as follows:
“Usually translated as “attachment” or “fixation”, it is the nonconceptual feeling of being hooked; it is the charge behind emotions, and more fundamentally, the charge behind the sense of “me”. (Chodron, 2005) (p. 369)
Goldstein talks about the process of “letting go”, which can help someone to compromise in a collaboration. He says,
When contemplating “mindfulness”, liberating insight arises both from a deep and clear observation of impermanence on momentary levels and from a wise consideration of what we already know. As a way of practicing this observation, the next time you take a walk, pay attention to the movements of your body and to things you see and hear and think. Notice what happens to all these experiences as you continue on your way. What happens to them? Where are they? When we look, we see everything continually disappearing and new things arising - not only each day and each hour, but in every moment. The truth of this is so ordinary that we have mostly stopped paying attention to it. By not paying attention, we miss the every-day, every-moment opportunity to see directly, and deeply, the changing nature of our lives. We miss the opportunity to practice the “letting-go mind.” If you let go a little, you will have a little peace. If you let go a lot, you will have a lot of peace. If you let go completely, you will have complete peace. Your struggles with the world will have come to an end. (Goldstein, 2002) (p. 32)
3.5 Cultivating resilience and the willingness to work with less
Cecilia and Lee were both weary from travel and time changes, yet were under a time crunch to finish the translation for the Hong Kong talk/performance. A meditation practice nurtures resilience and teaches one to work with less - less sleep, less food, and less comfort. As in a silent retreat, one cultivates living simply and minimally and working with what is. The quality of seeing things as they are and not wishing for something different, helped during the soundcheck when technical glitches were inevitable. This was a time to rely on one's ability to remain calm and patient under pressure. Being receptive and grateful for the cheerful and industrious sound technicians came naturally.
In A Still Forest Pool, Achaan Chah says,
Try to be mindful and let things take their natural course. Then your mind will become clear in any surroundings, like a clear forest pool. All kinds of wonderful, rare animals will come to drink at the pool, and you will clearly see the nature of all things. You will see many strange and wonderful things come and go, but you will be still. This is the happiness of the Buddha. (Kornfield et al, 1985) (p. 61) In exploring what “natural” is, Chah explains,
The true meaning of natural can be discovered with our discipline and practice. This natural is beyond our habits, our conditioning, our fears. If the human mind is left to so-called natural impulses, untrained, it is full of greed, hatred, and delusion, and suffers accordingly. Yet through practice we can allow our wisdom and love to grow naturally until it blossoms in any surroundings. (Ibid.) (p. 61)
Joseph Goldstein reminds us that,
The Buddha also emphasized the development of gratitude, one of the most beautiful and rare qualities in the world. We so easily take for granted - or forget - the kindness people show us. Yet when we feel true gratitude, whether toward particular people or toward life, metta will flow from us naturally. When we connect through another person with gratitude, the barriers that separate begin to melt. Without “us” and “them”, we are left simply in the openness of the situation, living in concord, just as those park-dwelling monks did in the time of Buddha. (Goldstein, 2002) (p. 110)
3.6 Receptivity - connecting in relationship
The relationship with one's collaborator is of utmost importance. Cultivating receptivity and openness to a partner’s’ style of working and way of being in the world, especially when different from ours, is essential. After working together in Hong Kong, we had a sense of shared experience. We grew closer, with more openness developing, and a sense we could “be ourselves” on a deeper level. A sense of trust was developing, which resulted in deeper and more meaningful work. In looking at reciprocity, Pema Chodron describes the sending and taking practice of “tonglen” as “A meditation practice that develops equanimity and compassion by taking in the suffering of others, and giving away all that is positive and good.” (Chodron, 2005) (p. 369)
3.7 Compassion - orientation toward service and the good of the whole
The experience of presenting our work in Hong Kong, and witnessing the powerful reciprocity of sharing with a group of like-minded students/faculty already acquainted with contemplative practice, was highly meaningful for us. We could feel the impact we had on both individuals and the larger audience, as well as the huge impact they had upon us. The subject matter of our project encourages an orientation towards service and living one’s life for the good of the whole.
In One Dharma, Goldstein asks the question:
What is this feeling of metta and why is it so honored in the teachings of early Buddhism? Sometimes in our lives we meet people who seem to radiate feelings of genuine love and kindness, people who seem to regard the whole world with loving care. They may be well-known people like Mother Teresa, Mahatma Gandhi, or Martin Luther King, Jr. Or [sic] they may be ordinary people we know who somehow have this great gift and capacity. When we’re with people like this, they make us feel that at that moment we are the most important person in the world, not because of who we are or what we’ve done, but simply because we are a fellow living being.
This special quality of lovingkindness is the generosity and openness of heart that simply wishes all beings to be happy. Metta doesn’t seek self-benefit; it’s not offered with the expectation of getting something back. And because it’s not dependent on external conditions, on people being or behaving in a certain way, it is not easily disappointed. As metta grows stronger we grow more open to others, more open to ourselves, with benevolence and good humor. The poet W.H. Auden expressed it well: “Love your crooked neighbor with all your crooked heart.” (Goldstein, 2002) (p. 108)
In essence, our work is not self-focused. Collaborative projects require participants to nurture a sense of knowing and tuning in with the self for the greater purpose of connecting to the “All”. Goldstein continues by reminding us of the Buddha’s opening lines of the Metta Sutta, his discourse on lovingkindness: “In order to attain the state of peace one should be able, upright, straightforward, easy to speak to, gentle, and not proud.” (Ibid.) (p. 108) Goldstein goes on to say that,
We need to express it in the way that we relate to people. Being able, upright, and straightforward means being committed to basic honesty and simplicity, so that we speak and act without deception or ulterior motives. Being easy to speak to and gentle means being approachable and actually making ease and gentleness our practice in the way we are with others. And not being proud reminds us of the true meaning of humility, which is not a stance of meekness, but rather the lack of self-centeredness. The writer Wei Wu Wei expressed this meaning with great insight: ‘True humility is the absence of anyone to be proud.’” (Ibid.) (p. 108)
In November of 2014, our project expanded to a shared concert Phase Four called “Imagining the Universe” , given in honor of Khenpo Sodargye Rinpoche at CCRMA at Stanford University. This involved a telematic performance between musicians at Stanford, Virginia Tech, University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Mexico at Guanajuato. Throughout this project, we have seen how meditation and technology can connect us, especially when used with a clear and conscious intent of building relationships. As with the intent of meditative practice, to become more connected with self, ripples out with a larger intent to connect in an open way to others, building bridges across the world. Thich Nhat Hanh’s poem, “Please Call Me By My True Names” reminds us of how we are all ultimately one:
Do not say that I’ll depart tomorrow because even today I still arrive.
Look deeply: I arrive in every second to be a bud on a spring branch,
to be a tiny bird, with wings still fragile, learning to sing in my new nest,
to be a caterpillar in the heart of flower, to be a jewel hiding itself in a stone.
I still arrive, in order to laugh and to cry, in order to fear and to hope,
the rhythm of my heart is the birth and death of all that are alive.
I am the mayfly metamorphosing on the surface of the river,
and I am the bird which, when spring comes, arrives in time to eat the mayfly.
I am the frog swimming happily in the clear water of a pond,
and I am also the grass-snake who, approaching in silence,
feeds itself on the frog.
I am the child in Uganda, all skin and bones, my legs as thin as bamboo sticks,
and I am the arms merchant,
selling deadly weapons to Uganda.
I am the twelve-year-old girl, refugee on a boat,
who throws herself into the ocean after being raped by a sea pirate,
and I am the pirate, my heart not yet capable of seeing and loving.
I am a member of the politburo, with plenty of power on my hands,
and I am the man who has to pay his “debt of blood” to my people,
dying slowly in a forced labor camp.
My joy is like spring, so warm
it makes flowers bloom in all walks of life. My pain is like a river of tears, so full
it fills up the four oceans.
Please call me by my true names,
so I can hear all my cries and laughs at once, so I can see that my joy and pain are one.
Please call me by my true names, so I can wake up,
and so the door of my heart can be left open, the door of compassion.
(Hanh, 1987) (pgs. 63-64)
In the future Phase Five, we plan to continue and expand this work through interviews with Bernice Johnson Reagon, Ani Choying Drolma, and Khandro Rinpoche (a Tibetan nun in the Mindrolling lineage), and by traveling to Tibet and China to record the chant of Buddhist nuns. Additionally, we would like to contribute to ongoing research on the impact of chants on the mind and body. We plan to share and teach ways to use technology in relation to the nuns’ chanting and musical practice.
In conclusion, we are grateful to have our individual meditation practices, which have inspired our working together as well as the development of our ongoing project, “Being Peace and the Power of the Voice”. The wish to connect and share knowledge is at the center for many of us working in higher education. The path of meditation leads to a deepening sense of self, which permeates to all that we touch and facilitates connections and lasting collaborative relationships. The qualities of receptivity and openness emerge, which can lead to a desire to live harmoniously, and to help others do so in the process. On a recent visit to India and the Gandhi Smriti Remembrance Museum, Lee was struck by Gandhi’s quote framed on the wall, “Simplicity is the essence of universality”. (Prabhu et al, 1967) In meditation, by stripping down to the essence of our breath, we can indeed touch something larger. Through researching the inspiring women dedicated to non-violence, who live and spread peace through their voices, we are inspired to do the same with our colleagues and students.
1. Kornfield, Jack, and Paul Breiter, eds. A Still Forest Pool: The Insight
Meditation of Achaan Chah. Quest Books, 1985. 191
2. Goldstein, Joseph, One Dharma - The Emerging Western Buddhism. Harper
San Francisco, 2002. 32
3. Ibid., 83
4. Ibid., 46
5. Ibid., 83
6. Chodron, Pema, No Time to Lose: A Timely Guide to the Way of the
Bodhisattva. Shambhala, 2005. 260
7. Ibid., 260
8. Ibid., 277
9. Kornfield and Breiter, eds. A Still Forest Pool. Quest Books, 1985. 190
10. Goldstein, One Dharma. Harper San Francisco, 2002. 61
11. Ibid., 61
12. Chodron, No Time to Lose. Shambhala, 2005. 369
13. Goldstein, One Dharma. Harper San Francisco, 2002. 32
14. Kornfield and Breiter, eds. A Still Forest Pool. Quest Books, 1985. 61
15. Ibid., 61
16. Goldstein, One Dharma. Harper San Francisco, 2002. 110
17. Chodron, No Time to Lose. Shambhala, 2005. 369
18. Goldstein, One Dharma. Harper San Francisco, 2002. 108
19. Ibid., 108
20. Ibid., 108
21. Hanh, Thich Nhat, Being Peace. Parallax Press, 1987. 63-64
22. Prabhu, R. K. and U. R. Rao, The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi. Ahmedabad, Navajivan, 1967.
Chodron, Pema, No Time to Lose: A Timely Guide to the Way of the
Bodhisattva. Shambhala, 2005.
Goldstein, Joseph, One Dharma - The Emerging Western Buddhism. Harper
San Francisco, 2002.
Hanh, Thich Nhat, Being Peace. Parallax Press, 1987.
Kornfield, Jack, and Paul Breiter, eds. A Still Forest Pool: The Insight
Meditation of Achaan Chah. Quest Books, 1985.
Prabhu, R. K. and U. R. Rao, The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi. Ahmedabad, Navajivan, 1967.
1. J. Cecilia Wu website: http://www.ceciliawu.com
2. Beryl Lee Heuermann website: http://www.blheuermann.com
3. Chris Chafe website: http://chrischafe.net
4. JackTrip: https://ccrma.stanford.edu/groups/soundwire/software/jacktrip/
5. Being Peace: http://www.blheuermann.com
Compositions, Being Peace
6. Imagining the Universe Concert: